Daning Hentasmaka, M.Pd.
STKIP PGRI Jombang
Abstrak : Motivasi adalah sebuah faktor yang penting yang mempengaruhi keberhasilan dalam proses pembelajaran, terutama dalam pembelajaran bahasa. Bisa diasumsikan bahwa siswa dengan motivasi belajar yang tinggi akan lebih berhasil dibandingkan dengan siswa dengan motivasi belajar yang rendah seperti yang terjadi pada siswa kelas delapan SMP Raden Fatah Batu. Pada proses belajar mengajar speaking siwa cenderung memiliki motivasi yang rendah untuk berbicara bahasa Inggris. Dalam Penelitian Tindakan Kelas yang terdiri dari dua siklus ini bertujuan untuk memaparkan implementasi mini drama dalam meningkatkan motivasi siswa untuk berbicara. Berdasarkan analisa data yang didapat dari lembar observasi dan kuesioner pada siklus 1, implementasi mini drama belum mendapatkan hasil yang memuaskan. Oleh karena itu perlu adanya revisi terutama dalam hal menjelaskan materi, memberi modeling dan drilling, dan memaksimalkan partisipasi siswa dalam memberikan komentar, mengevaluasi penampilan kelompok lain, dan berbagi pengalaman. Kriteria kesuksesan dicapai pada siklus 2 dimana persentase rata-rata dari partisipasi siswa adalah 79,83% dan nilai rata-rata motivasi siswa berada pada kategori menengah dan tinggi.
Kata Kunci : mini drama, motivation, participation, speaking
Abstract : Motivation is an important factor influences the success of learning process, especially in language classroom. It can be assumed that students who have high motivation in learning language will be more successful rather than students who have low motivation as what happened to the eighth graders of SMP Raden Fatah Batu. During the teaching and learning process of speaking skill students tend to have a low motivation to speak. In this two cycles action research the researcher aimed to describe the implementation of mini drama to improve students’ motivation in speaking. Based on the analysis of the data gotten from observation checklist and questionnaire in Cycle 1, the implementation of mini drama did not give satisfactory result yet. Therefore, it needed to be revised in the term of explaning the materials, giving modeling and drilling of the expressions, and optimazing students’ participation in giving comment, evaluating other performance, and sharing experience. The criteria of success was reached on cycle 2 in which the average percentage of students’ participation is 79,83% and the average score of students’ motivation is in medium and high category.
Keywords : mini drama, motivation, participation, speaking
Motivation is an important factor influences the success of learning process, especially in language classroom. Dornyei (2001:5) stated that the learner’s enthusiasm, commitment and persistence are the key determinants of success and failure in the process of mastering a foreign or second language. It can be assumed that students who have high motivation in learning foreign or second language will be more successful rather than students who have low motivation. In addition, the objective of teaching English based on the school curriculum is mastering the language skills which consist of listening, speaking, reading and writing.
Speaking is an activity as the ability to express oneself in the situation, or activity to report acts or situations in precise words or the ability to converse or to express a sequence of idea fluently (Ladouse in Nunan, 1991:23). Based on the curriculum of 2013 speaking is one of competences that should be mastered by the students. The importance of mastering speaking skill is supported by the statement of Schejbal (2006:14) that students need to develop their speaking skills in s great number of situations in order to send or receive messages and to be able to engage in a meaningful communication.
However, most of students have a low motivation in speaking during the teaching and learning process as what happened to the eighth graders of SMP Raden Fatah Batu. During the teaching and learning process of speaking skill students tend to have a low motivation to speak and as a result most of the students tend to get low scores for their speaking skill. Based on the result of teacher’s interview and students’ questionnaire in preliminary study the cause of the problem is the lack confidence of students, less chance to perform and develop their speaking skill, and the method used which did not encourage students to be active in the class. Based on the case, the researcher tries to improve students’ motivation in speaking by creating fun and innovative activity that is mini drama.
Drama is a potential activity that will give students freedom to express their feeling. The implementation of drama in teaching English is arranged to bring benefit of the language learners. As stated by Schejbal (2006:6) that drama helps learners in many areas. To name a few, it is the development of awareness of the use of a language in different environment and situations, building self-confidence, creativity, spontaneity, improvisation and involving emotion of the participants. It encourages the natural use of a foreign language based on particular situation. In building self-confidence, Schejbal (2006:7) added that drama help learners gain the confidence and self-esteem which is needed in using language spontaneously. By taking a special role given, the learners will be encouraged to be the character and abandon their shyness. In that way the students’ motivation in speaking will increase at the same time.
The research design used is Classroom Action Research (CAR) which is aimed to describe the implementation of mini drama to improve students’ motivation in speaking. Action research is a form of enquiry undertaken by participant in social or educational practices, as well as their own understanding of these practices are carried out (Carr and Kemmis, 1986:162). In addition, Latief (2003:2) stated that classroom action research in English Instruction is an approach to English teacher’s professional development and to improve student’s learning in which English teachers systemically collect data and reflect on their works and make changes in their classroom practice.
The subject of the research was the eighth grade students in class C academic year 2014/2015. The total of students in this class is thirty eight students which consist of twenty males and eighteen females.
The research was comprised of two cycles, and in every cycle consisted of four stages. They were:
Planning was made for the effort of improving students’ motivation in speaking using mini drama. It included some phases: First, designing lesson plan which focused on the improvement of students’ motivation in speaking by using mini drama. The lesson plan then revised on the second cycle by giving more modeling and drilling; second, preparing the material in the form of worksheet and drama scripts of the related topic, and preparing observation checklist and questionnaire as the instrument of the research; and third is preparing the criteria of success. The researcher determined the research succeed if the average percentage of students’ participation has reached ³ 70% and the average score of students’ motivation is in medium and high category.
The action of the study was the activities done as they were arranged in the lesson plan. It was conducted in two cycles. The total meetings in the research were six meetings. The meetings of cycle 1 were conducted on 26th and 28th of March 2015, and 2nd of April 2015 while the meetings of cycle 2 were on 4th, 9th, and 11th of April 2015. The topic taught in each cycle is different. The time table and topic of the cycles is presented in the following table:
Time Table and Topic of the Cycles
|Cycles||Cycle 1||Cycle 2|
|Meeting||Meeting 1||Meeting 2||Meeting 3||Meeting 4||Meeting 5||Meeting 6|
|Topic||Asking and giving attention||Asking and giving opinion|
There were three stages in the implementation of mini drama adopted from Ahmad (2013:340-344): pre activity, whilst activity, and post activity. The summary of the teaching scenario of first and second cycle is presented in the table below:
The Summary of Teaching Scenario
|Stages||Activities in cycle 1||Activities in cycle 2|
The observation phase was done by the collaborator. The collaborator observed and collected the data about any event that happened during the action in relation with criteria of success of this research. The instruments used were observation check list and questionnaire. The observation checklist was used as guidelines for observing the students’ participation during teaching and learning process which include: paid attention to the teacher, did the task well, interested in learning speaking using mini drama, involved in discussion and practice in group, involved in the drama performance, participated in giving comment and evaluating the performance of other group, and participated in sharing experience about the lesson. The next instrument was questionnaire which was used to know students’ motivation in speaking. The results of the observation and questionnaire were provided as basis for further revision and planning for the next cycle.
The researcher reflected what have been done in teaching learning process in cycle 1. The result of the reflection was compared with criteria of success to see whether the data met the criteria of success or not, then used as the decision to revise to the next cycle and made decision whether this action research is continued or stopped.
The first cycle consisted of three meetings which were conducted on 26th and 28th of March 2015, and 2nd of April 2015. The topic was the expression of asking and giving attention. Based on the data analysis of cycle 1 the average percentage of students’ participation was under the criteria of success. It only reached 62,44%. The lowest score were especially on students’ participation in giving comment and evaluating the performance of other group (44,23%) and participation in sharing experience about the lesson (48,03%). While in the matter of speaking motivation the researcher still found five students who were still in the category of low motivation. Based on the result of data analysis on students’ activity and student’s motivation, the implementation of mini drama did not give satisfactory result yet. Therefore, it needed to be revised and brought to the next cycle.
The meetings in second cycle were conducted on 4th, 9th, and 11th of April 2015. In this cycle the researcher applied mini drama to teach different topic. The topic was asking and giving opinion. In terms of participation the students were more enthusiastic in giving comment and evaluating the performance of other (66,03%) and sharing experiences about the lesson (62,38%). The improvement in preliminary, cycle 1, and cycle 2 is presented in the following table:
The Comparison of Students’ Participation in Preliminary, Cycle 1, and Cycle 2
|No.||Activities||Preliminary||Cycle 1||Cycle 2|
|1||Paid attention to the teacher||52,6%||68,57%||83,01%|
|2||Did the task well||53,86%||54,57%||85%|
|3||Interested in learning speaking||44,7%||55,51%||73,6%|
|4||Involved in discussion and practice in group||65,48%||75,65%||89,71%|
|5||Involved in mini drama performance||81,6%||90,5%||99,05%|
|6||Participated in giving comment and evaluating the performance of other group||43,5%||44,23%||66,03%|
|7||Participated in sharing experience about the lesson||42,1%||48,03%||62,38%|
The result shown in the table above indicate a significant improvement in student’s participation from the average 54,84% in preliminary become 62,44% in cycle 1 and 79,83% in cycle 2. The students’ score in motivation gotten from questionnaire has reached medium and high category in cycle 2. The category of students’ motivation score is as follow:
The Category of Students’ Motivation in Speaking
|Low||X < 65,3||X < 47%|
|Medium||65,3 £ x £ 102,7||47% £ x £ 73,36%|
|High||X > 102,7||X > 73,36|
The illustration of the motivation improvement based on the the category of students’ motivation above can be seen in the table below:
The Comparison of Students’ Motivation in Preliminary, Cycle 1, and Cycle 2
|No.||Students||Preliminary||Cycle 1||Cycle 2|
The table above shows increase in students’ motivation score in every cycle after they are taught speaking by using mini drama. In cycle 1 students’ motivation in speaking increase from 54% in preliminary study, to 65,24% in cycle 1, and 73,47% in cycle 2.
Referring to the result of observation checklist and questionnaire, it can be inferred that the implementation of mini drama could improve students’ motivation in speaking and has reached the goal of the research. Accordingly, the action research was stopped.
D. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
Mini drama is a potential activity that will give students freedom to express their feeling. The implementation of drama in teaching English is arranged to bring benefit of the language learners. The use of mini drama as technique in teaching speaking has helped students of VIII C SMP Raden Fatah Batu to improve their participation in speaking activities in the classroom as well as motivation in speaking English.
The implementation of mini drama needs a good preparation especially in choosing drama script which is suitable with the topic and students ability. The teacher should be able to analyze students’ character and need.
Ahmad, Salendra. And Rozimela, Yenni. 2013. Teaching Speaking by Using Mini Musical Drama to Improve Senior High School Students’ Speaking Performance. Journal of English Language Teaching, Vol. 2 No. 1, 340-344.
Carr, W. And Kemmis, S. 1986. Becomming critical. Education, Knowledge and Action Research. Lewes: Falmer.
Dornyei, Zoltan. 2001. Motivational Strategies in the Language Classroom. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Latief, Muhammad Adnan. 2013. Research Methods on Language Learning an Introduction 2nd Ed. Malang: UM Press.
Nunan, David. 1991. Research Methods in Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schejbal, David. 2006. Teaching Language Skills Through Drama. Masaryk University Brno Faculty of Education Department of English Language and Literature.